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May 31, 2008

Virtual Server - MARATHON TECHNOLOGY :: Llaunches everRun CDP - Continuous Data Protection

Real-Time Data Protection - Fast Data Recovery

Marathon Technologies Corporation, a provider of automated, fault tolerant-class availability solutions for virtual and physical environments, just launced everRun CDP. This software extends the capability Marathon’s everRun family of availability software by allowing data stored in remote locations to be protected. Its goal was to dramatically reduce or completely eliminate downtime that can be attributed to system, storage or network connection failures. The product provides added protection from catastrophic failure by capturing and replicating application data across any distance, in real-time.

Over time it is clear that virtual systems (based upon either virtual machine software or operating system virtualization technology), when combined with tools such as VMware Vmotion or Citrix XenSource’s XENmotion, are beginning to take on many of the characteristics that made high availability or single system image clustering products so helpful. As this evolution occurs organizations must address making the storage that contains their critical applications and data equally virtual. This need is being addressed at several levels including in network attached storage subsystems and in virtual storage software such as everRun CDP. Depending upon the need, both solutions can be workable. What makes this announcement interesting is that it offers quite a high level of availability without requiring organizations purchase expensive storage servers, drivers for those storage servers, management software for those storage servers and replication software for that environment. This approach would be appealing to many organizations.

More :
Providence Solutions Pte Ltd
Singapore : 10 Ubi Crescent #05-100, Ubi Techpark Lobby E, Singapore 408564
Tel: +65.64826302, 62869250 Fax: +65.67422723
Malaysia : B-3-17, Block B Merchant Square, No. 1 Jalan Tropicana Selatan 1,
PJU 3, Petaling Jaya, Selangor 47410, Malaysia
Tel: +60.3.78830793
Hong Kong : Shell Tower, Suite 2912, Times Square, 1 Matheson Street, Causeway Bay
Tel: +852.81990039 Fax: +852.28932300
email to:

Virtual Server - MARATHON TECHNOLOGY :: Fault-tolerant Technology for Virtual Server Environments

Marathon Technologies has partnered with Citrix Systems to jointly bring to market the Citrix XenServer product line, which offers high performance virtualization with an easy to use virtualization platform, and Marathon’s zero Windows downtime fault-tolerant technology. Server virtualization enables better server utilization, but also increases the need for high availability, because server consolidation makes a server a single point of failure for several applications, not just one.

With everRun for Virtual Machines,

• Fault tolerant levels of protection are easily achievable without the manual configuration and management of standby systems, replication, or failover.
• Faults and failures are automatically and immediately addressed without any knowledge of the OS or the application, providing true continuous availability of virtual machines.
• everRun is unique in that it protects at the individual VM level, but actually runs below the VM, just above the hypervisor. This level of integration allows everRun to build redundancy that is completely transparent to the operating environment to seamlessly manage faults and failures while the application continues to execute which is known as ComputeThru® technology.

Why failover when you can ComputeThru?

• everRun provides zero Windows downtime and flexible availability virtual servers.
• It completely automates setup, configuration, fault detection and policy management to support any Windows application without customization or scripting.
• It’s completely turnkey, to support your applications right out of the box – or to support your own custom-built application with no scripting.

Multilevel, Flexible & Scalable Fault Tolerance :

• everRun monitors the entire system from the storage, to the networks, right up to the memory and CPU to proactively manage faults and prevent application disruptions regardless of the level. (As your needs grow you can simply add additional servers to the pool to allow for additional applications and higher performance.)

More :
Providence Solutions Pte Ltd
Singapore : 10 Ubi Crescent #05-100, Ubi Techpark Lobby E, Singapore 408564
Tel: +65.64826302, 62869250 Fax: +65.67422723
Malaysia : B-3-17, Block B Merchant Square, No. 1 Jalan Tropicana Selatan 1,
PJU 3, Petaling Jaya, Selangor 47410, Malaysia
Tel: +60.3.78830793
Hong Kong : Shell Tower, Suite 2912, Times Square, 1 Matheson Street, Causeway Bay
Tel: +852.81990039 Fax: +852.28932300
email to:

Headset - ew 152 G2 Model No. 21403

General Description

This system is ideal for hands-free vocal and speech applications. The extremely small SK 100 G2 bodypack transmitter and the EM 100 G2 rack-mount receiver feature nine frequency banks with four directly accessible presets each – ready for immediate use.


  • 1440 tunable UHF frequencies for interference-free reception
  • Absolutely reliable transmission and extended range due to high RF output power
  • High-quality true diversity reception
  • Pilot tone squelch for eliminating RF interference when transmitter is turned off
  • Automatic frequency scan feature searches for available frequencies
  • Transmitter and receiver with rugged metal housings
  • Receiver features user-friendly menu operation via backlit display
  • Lock function avoids accidental changing of settings
  • HDX compander for crystal-clear sound
  • Transmitter and receiver feature “Low Battery” indicators
  • Mute function for the transmitter
  • Wide range of accessories adapts the system to any requirement

Delivery Includes

  • 1 EM 100 G2 rack-mount receiver
  • 1 SK 100 G2 bodypack transmitter
  • 1 ME 3 headset (super-cardioid)
  • 1 NT 2-1 power supply unit
  • 2 telescopic antennas
  • 2 AA batteries Operating instructions

more :

May 29, 2008

Headset - Bluetooth Headset/Bluetooth Earphone(V1.2, Stylish, Compact)

Detailed Product Description
Looks good, feels great, sounds even better! The Bluetooth Headset V1.2can satisfy all your needs for hearing. It is the perfect communication solution for people who need a stylish mobile accessory without complication. With advanced Bluetooth technology, the V1.2 wireless headset seamlessly connects to a compatible Bluetooth-enabled phone for wireless and hassle-free conversation.


  • Stylish, compact intelligent design
  • Flexible ear hook fits most ears and makes the headset stay in place even when you are on the move
  • 200 hours for standby and 6 hours for talking Simple pairing for easy use
  • You can press the multifunction button to answer and reject calls
  • With the press of a fingertip, it is easy to find and operate the intuitive volume button
  • Light indicator shows status of headset
  • Bluetooth 1.2 provides quicker pairing, better audio quality, adaptive frequency hopping and improved interference rejection
  • Backwards compatible with Bluetooth 1.1
  • A perfect companion for a variety of bluetooth-enabled mobile phones that support headset and handsfree profiles

Package Content

  • 1 x Bluetooth Headset
  • 1 x 110-240V Travel Charger
  • 1 x USB Cable
  • 1 x English Manual


  • Bluetooth Version V1.2 (V1.1 compatible)
  • Bluetooth Data Rate 723Kbps
  • Frequency Range 2.4~2.4835GHz
  • Operating Range up to 10 meters (peer-to-peer)
  • Operating Temperature 0-60°C
  • Operating Humidity 5%-95%, Non-condensing
  • Battery Type Rechargeable Li-polymer Battery
  • Color Silver
  • Size (LxWxH) 7.2cm x 2.1cm x 2.2cm
  • Gross Weight 0.260kg
  • Package Size (LxWxH) 17.4cm x 13.8cm x 5.5cm
  • Package Type Color Box

May 28, 2008

Headset - Bluethooth Headset, Super-mini Headset - [BTH-H5]

Bluethooth Headset, Super-mini Headset - [BTH-H5]


Bluetooth Compliance: Bluetooth 2.0 with V1.1
Frequency Range: 2.4GHz
Maximum Cordless Distance: 10m
Typical Standby Time: Up to 7.5 hours
Typical Talking Time: Up to 1.5 hours
Charge Time : 2-3hrs
CMOS Chip Group : BlueCore2-Audio Single CMOS Chip
Features: Full duplex, DSP technology for noise and echo cancellation
Bluetooth profiles supported: headset and hands free profiles

more :,_Super-mini_Headset/product_info.html

May 27, 2008

Microphone - Labtec Verse-333 Fleximount Microphone

Verse-333, Fleximount Mic - Monitor mount, Voice and Video Chat, Online Gaming, Speech Recognition. Win only

Labtec PC Mic 333 features an omnidirectional microphone to provide clear voice input for Internet telephony and voice chat, and other multimedia applications. Designed to be mounted on the monitor.

  • Space-saving design mounts on top of monitor
  • For audio input and voice-over-IP applications, including Internet voice chat, video conferencing, and multiplayer gaming
  • 7-foot shielded cord with color-coded jack (PC '99 compliant)
  • System frequency response: 100-10kHz
  • Input sensitivity: -56dV/ubar, -36dBV/Pascal +/-4dB
  • Microphone power source voltage: 1.5 V DC

Heatset - GENIUS HS-02I

Foldable Neck-band Headset for MP3

Overview , For :

  • MP3,
  • MSN,
  • SKYPE,
  • Game

Genius now introduces a comfortable neckband headset in a fashionable white style, HS-02i. It is perfect for listening to MP3 music, chatting on MSN or SKYPE, the Internet or on-line games. The HS-02i is foldable, portable to be carried with your personal MP3 player. You also can use it with MSN, SKYPE using its in line microphone. The in line volume control and microphone mute function are extraordinary. The HS-02i can make personal taste more stylish and distinguished. For more information, please contact with your sales representative.

Key features:

  • Neckband stereo headset
  • Foldable design
  • In-line volume control
  • In-line microphone with mute function
  • Great for MSN/ SKYPE/ MP3 player

Speaker > Philips MMS 460 Speakers

DVD movies have become extremely common these days. The supreme picture quality they offer is what attracts people to it. But the picture quality contributes to only one half of the experience. The other half being the high quality 5.1 channel AC3 surround sound. To experience the second half, you obviously need a good 5.1 channel speaker system. Most of today's games too flaunt multi-channel audio. Thanks to these games and DVD movies, the sale of 5.1 channel speaker systems has really picked up in the last couple of years. And no big speaker company would want to ignore that segment.

Understandably, Philips, the consumer electronics giant has launched a new range of multimedia speaker systems here to cater to the surround sound enthusiasts with different budgets. Today, we will have a closer look at one of their value 5.1 channel speaker systems, the MMS 460.

For starters, the MMS 460 is easily one of the best looking 5.1 channel speaker systems that I have come across. The smooth black and silver finish looks classy. The satellites seem like a miniature nuclear devices. They look good, but there is no real protection for the drivers. This is not a big issue as long as you keep it away from children and some adults, who like to finger around with bare satellite cones. Each of the five satellites is fitted with a 3-inch driver and has a power rating of 10 Watts RMS. The front firing wooden subwoofer has a 5.5-inch driver and is capable of 30 Watts RMS. The overall system has a power rating of 80 Watts RMS with a peak of 160 Watts. The MMS 460 has a rated overall frequency response of 20 Hz to 20 KHz.

The subwoofer has all the input and output connectors along with a knob for adjusting the bass. The center channel has a power on/off switch and a master volume control. The controls for adjusting the treble and surround volume are absent. A remote controller has also been given a slip. The cables are sufficiently long to separate the front and rear channels. A power adapter is also supplied in the package.

As always we connected this system to our Audigy 2 Platinum sound card and tested it using our usual sound tracks, DVD clips and game demos. Most of the 5.1 channel systems are more suited for movies and games rather than music and this isn't too different. The performance in gaming was excellent. Playing UT 2004 and DOOM 3 on this was a treat. There was absolutely no problem with the sound positioning. The sound was crisp and the bass adequate. In movies, the overall experience was pretty good. The dialogues were clear and highs were good too. However, in action scenes, the subwoofer felt a little underpowered as compared to the satellites. There wasn't enough thump in the bass. Making the subwoofer a little more powerful would have boosted the overall performance.

We also tested the speakers with sound tracks from different genres of music. The performance was a mixed bag. The highs were excellent and higher mids were pretty decent. However, the reproduction of lower mids was poor. To be precise, the mids lacked depth. I would rate the low frequency reproduction just above average. The weakness of the subwoofer was exposed by certain bass heavy tracks. This system is not ideal for Trance and Metal fans. The rest wouldn't be too disappointed with it. But to be fair to the speakers, I would like to repeat that 5.1 channel systems are not ideal for music buffs. They are more suited for gamers and movie buffs. Also, the speakers were loud enough in music and games and just about enough in DVD movies for a mid-sized listening environment.

The Philips MMS 460 can be purchased for a street price of Rs. 5,750 with a one-year warranty. In spite of its deficiencies, it is one of the better 5.1 channel speaker systems in that price range and can compete well with the Creative Inspire 5200 and Altec Lansing 251. And if you care for looks, this one owns them all. All in all, it's a reasonable buy for the surround sound enthusiasts.

Cash Drawer - Cash Drawer Triggers and Printer Beeper DT105U / DT105R and PB105

DT105U ( DT105R ) Cash Drawer Trigger is designed to provide USB ( RS-232 ) interfacing to the cash drawer . This allows the cash drawer , which is previously connected to POS printer or cash register , to be directly connected to a USB ( RS-232 ) port of the computer .This means through the DT105 the cash drawer can be directly connected to the computer when there is no printer used in the POS system .DT105 is to open the cash drawer when it receives the trigger command or the RTS/DTR signal control from the computer .PB 105 Printer Beeper is to be connected to the cash drawer connector on the printer when the cash drawer opens and needs louder beep sound for the printer .


  • Cash drawer can be directly connected to the computer with DT105
  • DT105U provides USB interface
  • DT105R provides RS-232 interface
  • DT105U USB Trigger uses a VSPD ( Virtual Serial Port Driver ) software which makes it like a standard RS-232 port
  • Accepts most of popular POS printer


  • DT105 Cash Drawer Trigger used for cash drawer without connecting to printer ( DT105 is connected between Cash Drawer and Computer )
  • PB105 Printer Beeper used for the printer which needs louder beep sound ( PB105 is connected between Printer and Cash Drawer )

Available Version

  • DT105U - Cash Drawer Trigger with USB interface
  • DT105R - Cash Drawer Trigger with RS-232 interface
  • PB105 - Printer Beeper with cash drawer interface
more :

May 26, 2008

Headset - BuffTech BE-208MW Dynamic Stereo Headphone Microphone Combo

General Specification:
• Adjustable Headband with Leatherette Ear Pads
• Volume Control
• Built-in Microphone
• Studio Quality Sound Reproduction
• On/Off Switch

Headphone Specification:
• Frequency Range: 20Hz - 10KHz
• Impedance: 32 Ohms
• Sensitivity: 92 dB SPL
• Cord Length: 6'

Microphone Specification:
• Frequency Range: 100Hz - 10KHz
• Impedance: 2K Ohms
• Sensitivity: -58 dB +/- 3 dB @ 1KHz

May 25, 2008

Guard Patrol Tour Terminal - GS1100 & GS120

New Mobile Time & Attendance Terminals / Guard Patrol Tour Monitoring Systems

Instead of the conventional Time & Attendance Terminals, which are wall-mount or desktop devices, GS1100/GS120 Mobile Time & Attendance terminals provide more flexibility and mobility. Personnel can clock in and clock out whenever and wherever.

GS1100/ GS120 are mobile data collection terminals based on RFID technology. When an ID-card is read by the terminal, a new database record is created. Each record contains the ID-code of the ID-card that was read, and together with the Date/Time stamp. All records are kept in the highly reliable internal database memory.

The accumulated data is uploaded into the PC using the Monitor software, which is enclosed with the package. The Monitor software is also used to setup the functioning parameters (Settings) of the mobile terminals.


  • Model No. GS1100
    Memory:14,320 records
    Battery: One Alkaline size AA, 1.5V DC Battery, replaceable and easy to replace
    LCD Display: No
    Dimensions: L 165 x W 48 x H34 mm
    Interface: RS232 orUSB
    Operating Temperature: -10 ~ +55 degree C
    Scan button: One-touch operation
    Reading range: 5-6 cm
    Frequency: 125 KHz, ASK
    Format: 64 bits, Manchester coding
    Transponder data:10 digits in Hex. ID-code
  • Model No.GS120
    Memory:8,192 records
    Battery: One Alkaline size AAA, 1.5V DC Battery, replaceable and easy to replace
    LCD Display : Yes
    Dimensions: L58 x W20 x H47mm
    Interface: RS232 orUSB
    Operating Temperature: -10 ~ +55 degree C
    Scan button: One-touch operation
    Reading range: 5-6 cm
    Frequency: 125 KHz, ASK
    Format: 64 bits, Manchester coding
    Transponder data:10 digits in Hex. ID-code

Note: The Specification is subject to change without notice.


  • Mobile Time & Attendance
  • Guard Tour Monitoring System
  • Remote Equipment Inspection Management
  • Conference Attendance Management

Available Version

  • GS1100: RS232 downloading
  • GS120: RS232 downloading
  • GS1100U: USB downloading
  • GS120U: USB downloading
  • Patrol Manager ¡V Application software for Guard Tour Monitoring Systems

Barcode, Label & Report Generator Software - by TEC-IT Datenverarbeitung GmbH

Many thanks for visiting TEC-IT Datenverarbeitung GmbH, Austria/Europe
We invite you to learn more about our Barcode Software, Label Software, Report Generator Software, PDF Document Creation Tools and Data Acquisition Software.

Barcode Software
Barcode software and barcode components for Microsoft® Windows®, Microsoft Office, SAP®, Linux®, UNIX® and Mac OS®.

Barcode Generator, Barcode Designer

Linux, UNIX, Mac OS
Barcode Generator, Barcode Designer

Barcode DLL, Barcodes (no Middleware)

Label Printing Software

Label software with barcode printing and ready-to-use labels for AIAG, VDA 4902, GM, Odette, Galia, GS1 (and many others).

Barcode and Label Printing (incl. AIAG, VDA 4902, GS1...)
Label Printing Automation (SDK)

Data Acquisition Software
Software for data acquisition and device connection (directly or through key stroke simulation). Suited for serial interfaces, TCP/IP and Bluetooth® devices.

Keyboard Wedge (Microsoft® Windows) Keyboard Wedge (Pocket-PC's)
Programmable Software Component
more :

May 24, 2008

Time Recorder / Time Attendance - Modem Time Recorder TR550

Modem Time TR550 is designed for facility attendance logging, employee time record tracking and job management and other applications. Especially with built-in modem, it is convenient to be installed at the branch office and managed from the faraway headquarters through the telephone line.This device utilizes RFID cards or magnetic cards or barcode cards as the identification storage medium for each authorized user seeking access to the facility.

l Built-in modem version or without modem
l Use VFD(Vacuum Fluorescent Display) for clock display
l VFD provides a wide viewing angle, long life and high display quality l Provides both RS-232 interface and RS-485 interface
l Provides two serial port connectors for daisy-chain connection of multi-unit application up to 255 units
l Contain 512K bytes memory buffer, store up to twenty thousands of records with 10 digits of ID-code
l Display can show some messages, such as Machine Address number, Baud Rate, Memory Buffer status...
l Event can be controlled by the preset event time table or by the manual event function keys
l Allows up to 32 preset time table to activate external alarm ring
l Can be connected with serial printer directly
l Wall-mount or desk top use
l Use non-volatile memory, memory will never lose when power failure

Magnetic Card: TR550M ISO Track 2, 75BPIBarcode Code: TR550B, TR550F Code 39, numericalRFID Proximity Card: TR550R 125KHz, ASK, 64Bits, Manchester codingInterface: RS-232 interface RS-485 interfaceMemory Size for Storing Data: 512K bytesClock: Real Time Clock(RTC) module with built-in 10-year batteryModem: 2400 bps Modem, CCITT V.22bis, V.22, Bell212, Bell 103Display: Vfd, 4 digitsPower Supply: DC 12V, 500mADimensions: 192(W)x120(H)x52(D)mmMounting: Wall-mounting or Desk-topEnvironment: Operating Temp: 0~55 Deg. C Storage Temp: -10~65 Deg. C Humidity: 10~90% relative Note: The Specification is subject to change without notice.

Time & Attendance Management
Flexible Working Hour Management
Watchman's Control

Avallable Version

  • TR550M -- Magnetic card
  • TR550R -- RFID Proximity card
  • TR550B -- Barcode card, red LED
  • TR550F -- Barcode card, infrared
  • TR550MM -- Magnetic card with built-in modem
  • TR550RM -- RFID Proximity card with built-in modem
  • TR550BM -- Barcode card, red LED with built-in modem
  • TR550FM -- Barcode card, infrared with built-in modem
more :

Card Reader - Mifare® Card Reader / Writer , Module

Mifare® Card Reader / Writer , Module
Model : PCR310 / MF5

The PCR310 is a high performance Mifare® card reader and writer. Multi-application cards can also be used with this read / write unit.The MF5 is a tiny Mifare® card read / write module, which is designed for the applications of 13.56Mhz technology for handy terminal or custom-built for system integrators. By using PCR310 / MF5 reader / writer (module) and the encorder software, customers can implement their own applications and define security keys themselves.

Frequency: 13.56 MHz Read / Write ISO 14443A ; Mifare® Class and Mifare® PRO Standard cards Fast data transferHigh data integrity True anticollisionMF5 read / write module for handy terminal or custom-built.


Major feature Feature: Read / Write for Card Issue
RF Frequency: 13.56Mhz
RF Distance: 2 cm
DC Power: 5V / 100mA
RS232: 19200,N,8,1
Interface : USB or RS232
Protocol : GNET PLUS
Card Type : ISO 14443A Mifare® Class Mifare® PRO
Memory : 32KB
Dimension (mm) : W65 x L100 x H24.7
Housing : ABSWeight : 115g
Operating temperature : -10 to 60 Deg C
Operating relative humidity : 10 ~ 90%

Major feature Feature: Read / Write Module
RF Frequency: 13.56Mhz RF Distance: Depend on antenna
DC Power: 5V / 100mARS232: 19200,N,8,1
Interface : RS232 TTL Protocol : GNET PLUS
Card Type : ISO 14443A Mifare® Class Mifare® PRO
Memory : No
Dimension (mm) : W26 x L36 x H11
Housing : NoWeight : 10g
Operating temperature : -10 to 60 Deg C
Operating relative humidity : 10 ~ 90%Mifare®
Class: Ultra-Light;
Standard 1K;
Standard 4K
Note: The Specification is subject to change without notice.

* Access controls
* Admission control
* Master and user authentication control
* Time and attendance
* Pre-payment
* Ticketing
* Prepaid parking / meal coupon
* Checking the balance & re-loading an ePurse
* Home security & Anti-crime application
* Multi-application: Tracking, Retail, Customer, Loyalty, Leisure, Gambling

Available Versions

PCR310U : USB interface with read / write software
PCR310R : RS232 interface with read / write software
MF5 + Start Kit : Development kit with read / write software + AC Adaptor + communction cable + Mifare card x 3pcs
MF5 : Read / Write Module only

*Mifare is a registered trademark of Philips Electronics N.V.

more :

May 23, 2008

Synchronization Products - SSU-32 Network Synchronization Clock

(Only for sale in the Nordic countries) Today's telecommunication is digital. Whether we talk about voice, fax, TV-signals or data, whether we talk about fixed or mobile telecommunication, whether we talk about optical fiber, copper or radio transport networks, we come to the same basic element, synchronization. The more network traffic, the higher the importance of synchronization. A reliable telecommunication is based on synchronized data signals, which are paced with the same clock, everywhere in the network. In e.g. SDH and SONET networks, the master Cesium clock or the primary reference clock PRC is distributed in the network with the data stream and recovered in the network nodes. Normally you find also "Slave Clocks" or SSU:s (Synchronization Supply Units) in some network nodes, that could temporarily take over synchronization in the local node (holdover), if the central synchronization fails for some reason.

Our latest product line in development is SSU-32 for network synchronization, for example SDH or SONET or Digital Audio or DTV distribution networks. The SSU-32 derives its synchronization from the GPS satellites, which is a far more stable method than picking up an E1 or T1 data stream with high amount of jitter and wander. As long as the SSU-32 is locked to GPS, it performs as a PRC master clock. An atomic Rubidium slave clock offers excellent holdover properties, and gives PRC performance over several days also in holdover mode.

SSU-32 is a flexible modular and 1+1 redundant, high-stability synchronization supply unit. It can be equipped with an ultra-stable rubidium oscillator or a high-stability OCXO. The SSU-32 accepts synchronization input from multiple sources including redundant 2Mbps-lines, 2.048 or 5 MHz external clock inputs or even an optional built-in GPS-receiver.

The SSU-32 features up to 208 outputs (2 Mbps or 2 MHz) that are fully redundant and autonomous and more than 1400 with the SDU-33 clock distribution unit. Retiming units and hitless switching of input sync sources without any output phase jumps are extraordinary features. The 2Mbits outputs support SSM - Synchronization Status Message management.
The SSU-32 incorporates high-performance 1+1 redundant Rubidium and Quartz clocks with extensive monitoring of e.g. frequency. Jitter and Wander filtering exceeds the requirements in ITU-T G.823/G.825. The clocks can operate in locked, holdover, automatic, manual & majority modes. Other noticeable features are up to 64 Frequency feedback monitoring inputs and a number of masks for automatic conformance checking.

The LYNX RSNM (Remote Synchronization Network Manager) can monitor hundreds of SSU-32 simultaneously and lets the operator configure the SSU:s, detect faults and other events, monitor sync quality, control security and maintain inventory management. Communication with central host is made via PSTN, X25 or Ethernet (TCP/IP). SNMP protocol is supported. GPS-locked Rubidium clock for ultimate stability (PRC) Modular rack design with plug-in modules. Upgrade when need arises Safe operation: Alarm output, redundant power supplies, SW monitoring

from :

Synchronization Products - Wandermeters

Synchronization products is our newest and fastest growing product group. It includes two Wandermeters for troubleshooting and certification of the synchronization clock in transport networks, and WM-11 comes with an Ethernet Interface as standard! Wander is the slow phase drift of the clock, and the major cause for synchronization problems. The SSU-32 is a modular system for synchronization of SDH, PDH, ATM and Mobile Digital Communication networks. The synchronization supply package also includes the Sync Clock Distribution Unit SDU-33 and the remote monitoring SW LYNX. Both the Wandermeter and the SSU-products were specified by, and developed in close cooperation with, Sweden's leading telecom network providers.

Please choose below for more detailed information about the different products:

WandermetersDetect sync problems fast and easy Today Pendulum Instruments offers two unique transportable Wandermeters, WM-10 and WM-11, for verifying the quality of synchronization clocks in digital networks, e.g. SDH/PDH/SONET. These units weigh only 5 kg and contain everything needed, including the internal Rubidium reference and the presentation mode SW for calculating and displaying TIE-, MTIE- and TDEV-curves on the built-in graphical display. WM-10 is a very accurate and easy-to-use portable Wandermeter, designed for wander measurements on E1 clock and data signals (2.048 MHz/Mbits/s). WM-11 is a mulit-application synchronization testing tool for a multitude of data rates in SDH, PDH, SONET, Video and frequency reference distribution networks. The Wandermeters cost less than many of comparable units and are extremely easy to operate.

Calibration/adjustment of the internal Rubidium timebase is fully automatic. Just connect the reference signal from e.g. the Fluke 910R (GPS-controlled Rubidium reference) and start the integrated calibration program. After some hours, the internal timebase is fully adjusted and compensated for aging. Verify conformance of sync clocks to ITU standards-MTIE and TDEV masks Portable troubleshooting tool- all included-Rubidium time-base-Ethernet Interface (WM-11)- -48V DC supply (WM-11)-Graphical display -Sync clock output
Anyone can operate- no expert needed-Very easy to use -Self-adjusting Rubidium time-base

from :

May 22, 2008

Test & Measurement - Pendulum Instruments introduces the new GPS-12R

Pendulum Instruments introduces the new GPS-12R, a GPS controlled rubidium Frequency Standard. This new instrument receives its frequency stability from the GPS satellite system, and is suited for many applications as e.g.:

Truly portable and battery operated 2.048 MHz telecom clock (1.544 MHz optional)
Stationary telecom clock with PRC-performance and redundant -48Vdc power supply
Ultra-stable time sync source for e.g. DVB and DAB
In-house 5 or 10 MHz low-noise frequency standard for metrology, lab and test systems In the basic configuration, the GPS-12R outputs 2.048 MHz and a 1-pps time reference for calibration or synchronization of test instruments and network elements in telecom networks. For SONET networks an optional T1 clock (1.544 MHz) is available. Thanks to the ultra-stable built-in Rubidium atomic clock oscillator, the frequency and time stability is excellent, whether in GPS-controlled mode or in hold-over mode. Optional batteries keep the oscillator running for hours without AC mains voltage, resulting in zero warm-up time after transportation.

For time synchronization of DAB or DVB transmitters, the 1-pps output has a very high stability, securing uninterrupted operation over several days, even after a loss of GPS. The hold-over drift is less than 1µs/24h.

For use as a frequency standard for metrology, research labs and test systems, the GPS-12R has optional 1, 5 and 10 MHz outputs with very low phase noise. The new inexpensive GPS-12R gives Cesium Frequency Standard performance at a fraction of the Cesium Standard cost. Datasheet for GPS-12R. (March 2006)

From :

Test & Measurement - Introducing the NEW CNT-90XL Microwave Counter/Analyzer!

Pendulum Instruments introduces the NEW CNT-90XL family of 27 to 60 GHz Microwave Counters with the world’s highest performance! The new CNT-90XL Microwave Counter/Analyzers set new milestones for microwave frequency counting. It offers the highest resolution and measurement speed available on the market. The measurement speed for power and frequency is up to 250000 frequency samples/s. The graphical display shows frequency changes over time directly on-screen, for analysis of e.g. FM or AM, power or frequency switching, VCO settling and post-tuning drift, etc. Built-in statistical processing presents numerical stability data and also frequency distribution histograms on-screen for analysis of frequency or power stability or modulation.Download the CNT-90XL data-sheet here. (Oct 2006)

TimeView™ MDA up to 20 GHz: Pendulum Intruments releases a new Modulation Domain Analysis (MDA) tool with a frequency range up to 20 GHz. TimeView™ can characterize and analyze fast frequency changes versus time on carriers from LF to 20 GHz.Read more here. (Aug 2006)

From :

May 21, 2008

Test & Measurement - Announcing the New CNT-91

The CNT-91 frequency counter, the world's most powerful frequency counter /timer /analyzer on the market today. The improved CNT-91 compliments the best selling CNT-90 with higher speed, greater resolution, and added features such as continuous data "streaming" , zero dead-time frequency and period, Totalize and the ability to program a pulse output from 0.5 Hz to 50 MHz for defining pulse rate frequency (PRF). Pendulum offers the only counters with true graphic capabilities on-screen for expanded statistical processing. CNT-91 product information . (June 2007)

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Test & Measurement - CNT-90XL Honorable Mention

The CNT-90XL is awarded honorable mention by Test & Measurement World magazine in the publication's Best in Test 2007 competition. The Best in Test awards are presented annually to honor new products in the electronics test and measurement industry that are particularly innovative and useful. Pendulum Instruments is honored to be awarded this tribute from distinguished industry leaders and recognizes the importance of continuing to provide world-class quality and innovative products to our customers. CNT-90XL product information here. (Feb 2007)

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Test & Measurement- New milestone in Orolia Group's accelerated growth strategy

Paris and Stockholm, March 6th, 2008. Orolia (NYSE Alternext Paris - FR0010501015 - ALORO), a precision electronics technology group specialized in high-precision time and frequency generation and distribution, announced today the acquisition of Stockholm-based Pendulum Instruments, the European leader in the field of time and frequency calibration, measurement and analysis.
This acquisition extends the technical competencies and market reach of Orolia to a third area of expertise: the measurement of high-precision time and frequency signals. In addition to new market access for this important technology and as an integral part of Orolia's strategy to establish product leadership in key industries, this acquisition allows the Group to expand its geographical presence in the fast-growing economies of Eastern Europe, Russia and China.

With a rich, decades long heritage in test and measurement instrumentation and a turnover of 5 M€ in 2007, Pendulum Instruments, headquartered in Sweden with offices and subsidiaries in China, Russia, and the USA, is an industry leader serving the electronics, communications, metrology and military markets with a product portfolio of frequency counters, frequency standards, frequency distribution systems, and wireless test equipment.

As a complementary fit to Orolia's existing time and frequency businesses, T4 Science, SpectraTime and Spectracom, the acquisition of Pendulum Instruments allows the companies to mutually benefit from global distribution channels, vertical integration of key system components and local support.
In line with the decentralized management culture of Orolia, Pendulum Instruments and its subsidiaries will continue to operate under their own brand and under the leadership of their current management team.

Orolia confirms its strategy to grow the Group through targeted synergistic acquisitions "This is Orolia's second acquisition in seven months, and is a further milestone in the group's accelerated growth strategy," said Jean-Yves Courtois, Orolia's Chairman and CEO. "The acquisition of Pendulum Instruments, with its entrepreneurial management team, a software development center in Saint-Petersburg (Russia), its wide sales network, and a strong presence in Eastern Europe and Asia, constitutes a unique opportunity for Orolia to go one step forward in its plan to build a global worldwide leader in iPrecision Systems for Critical Operations." He added: "Orolia has been historically involved in high-precision time and frequency generation through its atomic clocks, which are used throughout the world. During the last three years, we have gradually established Orolia as a leading time and frequency distribution company through the acquisition and development of one of the best time server and synchronization equipment portfolios on the market. Extending our reach to the measurement of time and frequency signals offered a natural growth opportunity with strong synergies at the R&D, marketing and sales levels."

"We are delighted about joining Orolia because of the Group's technological expertise and its international dimension and culture," said Harald Kruger, CEO of Pendulum. "The exciting synergies at the technical and sales levels with the other Orolia companies will allow us to strengthen our product, support and service offers for our customers and to leverage our past efforts in developing a strong hardware and software team and a worldwide sales network covering more than 100 countries."

About Orolia
Orolia, a precision electronics technology group, brings together branded leading-edge companies specialized in high-precision time and frequency solutions systems for mission-critical applications. The group includes four companies: SpectraTime, T4 Science, Spectracom and Pendulum Instruments. Orolia's companies develop and market systems that produce, distribute and measure ultra-high precision signals through information networks in large and growing high-end markets, such as space and navigation, defense and security as well as telecommunications and broadcasting. These systems are deployed in a number of countries in Europe, Asia and North and South America. Orolia has committed to an accelerated growth strategy through acquisitions (companies, products, technologies). Orolia's headquarters is located in Les Ulis, France, and the company also has offices in Neuchatel, Switzerland and Rochester, New York. Web: (March 2008)

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May 20, 2008

Test & Measurement - Pendulum Instruments introduces a portable Frequency Standard

Stockholm April 1, 2008. Pendulum Instruments announces the introduction of a portable high precision Frequency Standard called 7370. The 7370 is a cost effective and fully portable GPS Synchronised Frequency Standard, which will continue to operate for up to 8 hours without the connection of its GPS and power.

The instrument is very compact and light-weight (weighs only 2.6 kg), and has fully automatic battery recharging and oscillator calibration overnight, using optional fixed antenna, or while travelling (via in-car charger lead and magnetic base GPS antenna). The 7370 retains accurate time and frequency during long periods of field use, due to calibration via GPS and high quality internal oscillator.

Designed as a calibration instrument for use in remote rural regions of the world, the 7370 lends itself to many other varied applications where portable precision is a must. The instrument will operate either in fixed or mobile applications, and gives precise frequency and time signals in all situations where conventional laboratory instrumentation cannot be used.
The instrument is available for deliveries in April, 2008. (April 2008)

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Test & Measurement - Pendulum Instruments introduces a combined GPS/GLONASS Frequency Standard

Stockholm April 22, 2008. Pendulum Instruments, a company of the Orolia Group, announces the introduction of a combined GPS and GLONASS controlled Frequency Standard called GPS-12RG. The GPS-12RG combines the two major timing and navigation satellite systems, GPS and the Russian GLONASS, to improve the precision and signal coverage.

The instrument is a further development of the company's successful GPS-12R which uses the GPS satellites to control its output frequency. The GPS-12RG can trace its operation to both GPS and GLONASS satellites, and contains a very-high stability Rubidium atomic clock. It is a compact one-box-solution, containing also an optional internal battery for use as UPS backup power on the bench, for warm-keeping of the oscillator during transport or for mains-free operation in the field.
The internal Rubidium oscillator gives excellent stability of a few parts in 10-12, also in hold-over operation, for example when satellite contact is lost. It can be used as a very accurate frequency calibrator for calibration labs, institutes, electronic industry as well as in telecom.
The instrument is available for deliveries in May/June, 2008. (April 2008)

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May 19, 2008

Nanotechnology - Building Better Fuel Cells with Nanotechnology

Nanowerk Spotlight - Fuel cells have gained a lot of attention because they provide a potential solution to our addiction to fossil fuels. Energy production from oil, coal and gas is an extremely polluting, not to mention wasteful, process that consists of heat extraction from fuel by burning it, conversion of that heat to mechanical energy, and transformation of that mechanical energy into electrical energy. In contrast, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert a fuel's chemical energy directly to electrical energy with high efficiency and without combustion (although fuel cells operate similar to batteries, an important difference is that batteries store energy, while fuel cells can produce electricity continuously as long as fuel and air are supplied).

Despite their modern day high-tech aura, fuel cells actually have been around since the early 1800s. In 1839, William Robert Grove developed the Grove cell, which used zinc and platinum electrodes exposed to two acids and separated by a porous ceramic pot to generate about 12 amps of current at about 1.8 volts.

Modern fuel cells have the potential to revolutionize transportation. Like battery-electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles are propelled by electric motors. But while battery electric vehicles use electricity from an external source and store it in a battery, fuel cells onboard a vehicle create electricity through a chemical process using hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air (although the operation of a fuel cell vehicle is pollution free, the question is how the hydrogen for the fuel cell is produced – see Nanotechnology could clean up the hydrogen car's dirty little secret).

One of the leading fuel cell technologies developed in particular for transportation applications is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells – both resulting in the same acronym PEMFC. The proton conductivity of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is one of the key factors limiting the performance of PEMFCs, which depends on the relative humidity, and controls the cost and durability of these fuel cells. Furthermore, one of the major barriers preventing commercialization of PEMFCs is the lack of suitable materials to make them affordable. Nanotechnology promises cheap bipolar materials using nanocomposites, more efficient non-platinum electrocatalysts, and thermally stable and more durable membranes to become available in the near future. Researchers in India now have used nanotechnology to develop a carbon nanotube composite material which has the potential to make better fuel cell modules due to enhanced electrolyte properties.

"An improvement in the proton conductivity of the electrolyte membrane even by only one order of magnitude could change the performance of fuel cells dramatically" Dr. Vijayamohanan Pillai explains to Nanowerk. "Currently, Nafion (a sulfuric acid in a solid polymer form)-based membranes are widely used as the PEM in fuel cells that operate from 60 to 80°C. Although these state-of-the-art membranes show good proton conductivities from 0.1 to 0.01 Siemens per cm in a humid environment, they have many limitations, such as: 1) dependence on water for conductivity; 2) high methanol permeability; 3) a tendency to disintegrate in the presence of hydroxyl radicals, an intermediate in the cathode reaction; and 4) moderate mechanical and chemical stability."

Pillai, a researcher at the National Chemical Laboratory in Pune, India, and head of its Materials Electrochemistry Group, together with his team has developed a chemical strategy to increase the sulfonic acid content of Nafion membranes by incorporating sulfonic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-SWCNTs), and demonstrated the remarkable utility of this composite membrane as electrolyte in PEMFC applications.

The researchers reported their findings in a recent issue of Angewandte Chemie International Edition ("Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Using Nafion-Based Composite Membranes with Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes").

Pillai notes that significant efforts by fuel cell researchers go into developing composite materials that aim to increase the water retention capabilities of Nafion so that it doesn't lose its proton conduction at high temperatures. "In our work, we introduced sulfonic acid functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes into the Nafion matrix, thereby increasing the number of sulfonic acid groups – which is the key for its conduction – in the membrane" he says.

While the incorporation of SWCNTs would also help increase the mechanical stability of the composite membranes over that of Nafion membranes, a major benefit would be a much needed cost reduction in PEMFC technology.

Pillai explains that the high proton conductivity of Nafion is attributed to a mechanism in which the reorganization of hydrogen bonds plays a key role. "As the extra sulfonic acid moieties are anchored on the surface of our SWCNTs, these could provide more facile hopping of protons, which in turn would help to increase the proton mobility, thus accounting for the observed enhancement in conductivity (the Nafion/S-SWCNT composite membranes showed an almost one order of magnitude higher conductivity). In contrast, we found that an unmodified SWCNT/Nafion composite membrane does not show any improvement in proton conductivity."

This work has opened a new method of designing the polymer electrolytes for electrochemical power sources like fuel cells. It also demonstrates that, apart from a remarkable improvement in proton conductivity, properly designed membranes with appropriate incorporation of functionalized carbon nanotubes could help decrease the methanol cross-over without sacrificing the proton conductivity of the membrane.

Pillai cautions that several challenges have to be overcome before these advantages can be commercially exploited, including a rigorous evaluation of the chemical stability and durability of the membranes, lifetime studies of membrane-electrode assemblies, and possible corrosion problems of the electrode materials because of the higher sulfonic acid content.

By Michael Berger.

May 18, 2008

Nanotechnology - What is Nanotechnology?

A basic definition:

Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale.

This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.

The Meaning of Nanotechnology
When K. Eric Drexler (right) popularized the word 'nanotechnology' in the 1980's, he was talking about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers wide—motors, robot arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a cell. Drexler spent the next ten years describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of science fiction. Meanwhile, mundane technology was developing the ability to build simple structures on a molecular scale.

As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology. The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative was created to fund this kind of nanotech: their definition includes anything smaller than 100 nanometers with novel properties.

Much of the work being done today that carries the name 'nanotechnology' is not nanotechnology in the original meaning of the word. Nanotechnology, in its traditional sense, means building things from the bottom up, with atomic precision. This theoretical capability was envisioned as early as 1959 by the renowned physicist Richard Feynman.

I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big. — Richard Feynman, Nobel

Prize winner in physics
Based on Feynman's vision of miniature factories using nanomachines to build complex products, advanced nanotechnology (sometimes referred to as molecular manufacturing) will make use of positionally-controlled mechanochemistry guided by molecular machine systems. Formulating a roadmap for development of this kind of nanotechnology is now an objective of a broadly based technology roadmap project led by Battelle (the manager of several U.S. National Laboratories) and the Foresight Nanotech Institute.

Shortly after this envisioned molecular machinery is created, it will result in a manufacturing revolution, probably causing severe disruption. It also has serious economic, social, environmental, and military implications.

Four Generations
Mihail (Mike) Roco of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described four generations of nanotechnology development (see chart below). The current era, as Roco depicts it, is that of passive nanostructures, materials designed to perform one task. The second phase, which we are just entering, introduces active nanostructures for multitasking; for example, actuators, drug delivery devices, and sensors. The third generation is expected to begin emerging around 2010 and will feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. A few years after that, the first integrated nanosystems, functioning (according to Roco) much like a mammalian cell with hierarchical systems within systems, are expected to be developed.

Some experts may still insist that nanotechnology can refer to measurement or visualization at the scale of 1-100 nanometers, but a consensus seems to be forming around the idea (put forward by the NNI's Mike Roco) that control and restructuring of matter at the nanoscale is a necessary element. CRN's definition is a bit more precise than that, but as work progresses through the four generations of nanotechnology leading up to molecular nanosystems, which will include molecular manufacturing, we think it will become increasingly obvious that "engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale" is what nanotech is really all about.

Conflicting Definitions
Unfortunately, conflicting definitions of nanotechnology and blurry distinctions between significantly different fields have complicated the effort to understand the differences and develop sensible, effective policy.

The risks of today's nanoscale technologies (nanoparticle toxicity, etc.) cannot be treated the same as the risks of longer-term molecular manufacturing (economic disruption, unstable arms race, etc.). It is a mistake to put them together in one basket for policy consideration—each is important to address, but they offer different problems and will require different solutions. As used today, the term nanotechnology usually refers to a broad collection of mostly disconnected fields. Essentially, anything sufficiently small and interesting can be called nanotechnology. Much of it is harmless. For the rest, much of the harm is of familiar and limited quality. But as we will see, molecular manufacturing will bring unfamiliar risks and new classes of problems.

General-Purpose Technology
Nanotechnology is sometimes referred to as a general-purpose technology. That's because in its advanced form it will have significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. It will offer better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer, and smarter products for the home, for communications, for medicine, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general.
Imagine a medical device that travels through the human body to seek out and destroy small clusters of cancerous cells before they can spread. Or a box no larger than a sugar cube that contains the entire contents of the Library of Congress. Or materials much lighter than steel that possess ten times as much strength. — U.S. National Science Foundation

Dual-Use Technology
Like electricity or computers before it, nanotech will offer greatly improved efficiency in almost every facet of life. But as a general-purpose technology, it will be dual-use, meaning it will have many commercial uses and it also will have many military uses—making far more powerful weapons and tools of surveillance.
Thus it represents not only wonderful benefits for humanity, but also grave risks.
A key understanding of nanotechnology is that it offers not just better products, but a vastly improved manufacturing process. A computer can make copies of data files—essentially as many copies as you want at little or no cost. It may be only a matter of time until the building of products becomes as cheap as the copying of files. That's the real meaning of nanotechnology, and why it is sometimes seen as "the next industrial revolution."

My own judgment is that the nanotechnology revolution has the potential to change America on a scale equal to, if not greater than, the computer revolution. — U.S. Senator Ron Wyden (D-Ore.)
The power of nanotechnology can be encapsulated in an apparently simple device called a personal nanofactory that may sit on your countertop or desktop. Packed with miniature chemical processors, computing, and robotics, it will produce a wide-range of items quickly, cleanly, and inexpensively, building products directly from blueprints.

Exponential Proliferation
Nanotechnology not only will allow making many high-quality products at very low cost, but it will allow making new nanofactories at the same low cost and at the same rapid speed. This unique (outside of biology, that is) ability to reproduce its own means of production is why nanotech is said to be an exponential technology. It represents a manufacturing system that will be able to make more manufacturing systems—factories that can build factories—rapidly, cheaply, and cleanly. The means of production will be able to reproduce exponentially, so in just a few weeks a few nanofactories conceivably could become billions. It is a revolutionary, transformative, powerful, and potentially very dangerous—or beneficial—technology.

How soon will all this come about?
Conservative estimates usually say 20 to 30 years from now, or even much later than that. However, CRN is concerned that it may occur sooner, quite possibly within the next decade. This is because of the rapid progress being made in enabling technologies, such as optics, nanolithography, mechanochemistry and 3D prototyping. If it does arrive that soon, we may not be adequately prepared, and the consequences could be severe.
We believe it's not too early to begin asking some tough questions and facing the issues:

  • Who will own the technology?
  • Will it be heavily restricted, or widely available?
  • What will it do to the gap between rich and poor?
  • How can dangerous weapons be controlled, and perilous arms races be prevented?

Many of these questions were first raised over a decade ago, and have not yet been answered. If the questions are not answered with deliberation, answers will evolve independently and will take us by surprise; the surprise is likely to be unpleasant.

It is difficult to say for sure how soon this technology will mature, partly because it's possible (especially in countries that do not have open societies) that clandestine military or industrial development programs have been going on for years without our knowledge.

We cannot say with certainty that full-scale nanotechnology will not be developed with the next ten years, or even five years. It may take longer than that, but prudence—and possibly our survival—demands that we prepare now for the earliest plausible development scenario.

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May 17, 2008


Manufactured products are made from atoms. The properties of those products depend on how those atoms are arranged. If we rearrange the atoms in coal we can make diamond. If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a few other trace elements) we can make computer chips. If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we can make potatoes.
Todays manufacturing methods are very crude at the molecular level. Casting, grinding, milling and even lithography move atoms in great thundering statistical herds. It's like trying to make things out of LEGO blocks with boxing gloves on your hands. Yes, you can push the LEGO blocks into great heaps and pile them up, but you can't really snap them together the way you'd like.

In the future, nanotechnology will let us take off the boxing gloves. We'll be able to snap together the fundamental building blocks of nature easily, inexpensively and in most of the ways permitted by the laws of physics. This will be essential if we are to continue the revolution in computer hardware beyond about the next decade, and will also let us fabricate an entire new generation of products that are cleaner, stronger, lighter, and more precise.

It's worth pointing out that the word "nanotechnology" has become very popular and is used to describe many types of research where the characteristic dimensions are less than about 1,000 nanometers. For example, continued improvements in lithography have resulted in line widths that are less than one micron: this work is often called "nanotechnology." Sub-micron lithography is clearly very valuable (ask anyone who uses a computer!) but it is equally clear that conventional lithography will not let us build semiconductor devices in which individual dopant atoms are located at specific lattice sites. Many of the exponentially improving trends in computer hardware capability have remained steady for the last 50 years. There is fairly widespread belief that these trends are likely to continue for at least another several years, but then conventional lithography starts to reach its limits.

If we are to continue these trends we will have to develop a new manufacturing technology which will let us inexpensively build computer systems with mole quantities of logic elements that are molecular in both size and precision and are interconnected in complex and highly idiosyncratic patterns.

Nanotechnology will let us do this.
When it's unclear from the context whether we're using the specific definition of "nanotechnology" (given here) or the broader and more inclusive definition (often used in the literature), we'll use the terms "molecular nanotechnology" or "molecular manufacturing."
Whatever we call it, it should let us
Get essentially every atom in the right place.
Make almost any structure consistent with the laws of physics that we can specify in molecular detail.

Have manufacturing costs not greatly exceeding the cost of the required raw materials and energy.

There are two more concepts commonly associated with nanotechnology:
  • Positional assembly.
  • Massive parallelism.

Clearly, we would be happy with any method that simultaneously achieved the first three objectives. However, this seems difficult without using some form of positional assembly (to get the right molecular parts in the right places) and some form of massive parallelism (to keep the costs down).

The need for positional assembly implies an interest in molecular robotics, e.g., robotic devices that are molecular both in their size and precision. These molecular scale positional devices are likely to resemble very small versions of their everyday macroscopic counterparts. Positional assembly is frequently used in normal macroscopic manufacturing today, and provides tremendous advantages. Imagine trying to build a bicycle with both hands tied behind your back! The idea of manipulating and positioning individual atoms and molecules is still new and takes some getting used to. However, as Feynman said in a classic talk in 1959: "The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom." We need to apply at the molecular scale the concept that has demonstrated its effectiveness at the macroscopic scale: making parts go where we want by putting them where we want!

One robotic arm assembling molecular parts is going to take a long time to assemble anything large — so we need lots of robotic arms: this is what we mean by massive parallelism. While earlier proposals achieved massive parallelism through self replication, today's "best guess" is that future molecular manufacturing systems will use some form of convergent assembly. In this process vast numbers of small parts are assembled by vast numbers of small robotic arms into larger parts, those larger parts are assembled by larger robotic arms into still larger parts, and so forth. If the size of the parts doubles at each iteration, we can go from one nanometer parts (a few atoms in size) to one meter parts (almost as big as a person) in only 30 steps.

from :
created by Dr. Ralph Merkle

Nanotechnology - Nanotechnology Could Clean up the Hydrogen Car's Dirty Little Secret

Nanowerk Spotlight - Back in January, when the U.S. president announced his hydrogen fuel initiative and proposed to spend a total of $1.7 billion over the next five years to develop hydrogen-powered fuel cells, hydrogen infrastructure and advanced automotive technologies, he said that it will be practical and cost-effective for large numbers of Americans to choose to use clean, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Program, the government's goal is to achieve "technology readiness" by around 2015 in order to allow industry to make decisions on commercialization by then. That's only eight years to go. Given where the technology is today, this goal seems very ambitious, to say the least. Nanotechnology could help speed up the journey to the hydrogen society, but it will take some sensational breakthroughs on the way. The three key areas for the vehicles (we will not touch on the infrastructure issues here) are clean - the emphasis is on clean - hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and the fuel cell itself. We'll take a look at how nanotechnology will play a role in these areas.

First, let's get the terminology straight. Getting an internal combustion engine to run on hydrogen is not difficult (but it is difficult to get it to run smoothly). Some of the Hydrogen Vehicles on the road today still have an internal combustion engine, but one that uses either pure hydrogen or a mix of hydrogen and natural gas. True Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles basically are electric cars (having a flashback to the 1970s here?) where fuel cells convert the chemical energy of a fuel – hydrogen – directly into electricity without any intermediate thermal or mechanical processes. Neat thing is that the exhaust consists solely of heat and water.

Hydrogen Production
Hydrogen fuel cells get their hydrogen either produced on-board by converting liquid fuels (gasoline, ethanol, or methanol) to hydrogen, or by using hydrogen that has been generated off-board and stored on the vehicle. Where that off-board generated hydrogen comes from is problem number 1: There are no hydrogen wells.

Hydrogen has to be produced, and that can be done using a variety of resources. The cleanest by far of course would be renewable energy electrolysis: using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen; this electricity could be generated using renewable energy technologies such as wind, solar, geo- and hydrothermal power. The dirtiest, at least until highly efficient carbon capture and sequestration technologies are developed, is the gasification of coal. Of course you can also use nuclear energy to provide the electricity for electrolysis.

However, 95% of all the hydrogen produced in the United States today (and 50% worldwide), some 9 million tons annually, is produced from methane in natural gas using high-temperature steam – so-called steam methane reforming. Government researchers say that they see natural gas only as a 'near-term' solution; 'near-term' meaning the time it takes to come up with a better and cleaner solution that scales industrially. That solution doesn't exist yet.

And here is the dirty little secret: while politicians and the energy industry talk about the clean future of the hydrogen economy, the DOE's Hydrogen Energy Roadmap foresees up to 90% of hydrogen production coming from fossil fuels – coal, gas, oil – the rest mostly from nuclear power plants (why do you think the oil companies are investing hundreds of millions of dollars into hydrogen technology?). In other words: although hydrogen fuel cell cars themselves may emit nothing but water and heat, the process of powering the fuel cells with hydrocarbons will continue the economy's dependence on fossil fuels and leave behind carbon dioxide (sequestered or not), the primary cause of global warming.

For an in-depth discussion of hydrogen energy read the policy statement "Renewable Hydrogen" (pdf download, 788 KB) from the American Solar Energy Society.) The greatest challenge to clean hydrogen production is its cost. Unless government mandates the use of hydrogen or significantly increases the taxes on existing fossil-based fuels, the 'gallon/liter gasoline equivalent' (the amount of fuel with the energy content of one gallon/liter of gas) will be the measure used by drivers to decide what fuel to use. And the cheapest way today to produce hydrogen is from fossil fuels.

Nanotechnology's major contribution to the clean production of hydrogen lies in its application to solar cells and the catalysts used in water electrolysis. The holy grail here would be a highly efficient device that you fill with water, put in the sun, and get hydrogen without using any outside source of energy. Solar cells have the potential to make this dream come true. The two key issues for now are efficiency (which is low) and cost (which is high). In one type of solar cell hydrogen is generated directly in a photoelectrochemical process that is based on the conversion of sunlight energy to chemical energy. It has been shown that nanoscale electrode materials, resulting in higher surface area to volume ratios, will increase the efficiency of the cell. Another type of solar cell – a photovoltaic cell – produces electricity that can then be used to power electrolytic production of hydrogen from water. Experiments with nanowire arrays and other nanostructured materials have shown that they improve the efficiency of these cells. Without going into details here – we have plenty of news articles and spotlights on this topic on our site – it is probably safe to say that nanotechnology will play an important role in building the type of highly efficient solar cells required to become a viable alternative to fossil fuel based hydrogen production.

Hydrogen Storage
Storing the hydrogen onboard that is needed to run your car's fuel cells poses another challenge. Very roughly speaking you would need about 1 kg of hydrogen to drive 100 km (or some 2.2 lbs. per 60 miles). That means you need about 5 kg/10lbs. of hydrogen to have the same average range as today's cars. Since hydrogen's density is only 1/10th of a gram per liter at room temperature, that means you somehow need to pack 50,000 liters (∼14,000 gallons) of hydrogen into your tank.

There are three ways of doing this: as a high-pressure compressed gas; a cryogenic liquid; or as a solid. Compressed hydrogen gas tanks will likely be used in early hydrogen-powered vehicles and will need to meet cost and packaging requirements to play a role across various vehicle platforms. Honda last year announced the FCX concept car that stores 5 kg of hydrogen at 5000 psi in a tank small enough to fit into a midsize car. Rather than using thousands of psi to compress hydrogen into a tank, or cooling it down to minus 252°C (minus 421° F) to liquefy it, an intriguing alternative of hydrogen storage has led to metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and physisorption-based storage, where hydrogen is adsorbed onto the interior surfaces of a porous material. The stored hydrogen can then be released by heat, electricity, or chemical reaction.

Many metals are capable of absorbing hydrogen as well. Nanotechnology plays an important role here. Nanomaterials have diverse tunable physical properties as a function of their size and shape due to strong quantum confinement effects and large surface to volume ratios. These properties are useful for designing hydrogen storage materials. For instance, researchers are now investigating nanostructured polymeric materials as hydrogen storage adsorbents. The new polymer adsorbent material has shown great promise in preliminary tests. Due to their large surface areas with relatively small mass, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been considered very promising potential materials for high capacity hydrogen storage. Theoretically, they can store hydrogen up to 7.7 wt%, as every carbon atom in SWCNTs chemisorbs one hydrogen atom. In addition, the subsequent physisorption of hydrogen on the surfaces of hydrogenated SWCNTs can increase the capacity of hydrogen storage even further. However, there is some skepticism on carbon nanotube hydrogen storage due to early mistakes in experimental publications and a rational basis for high capacity hydrogen storage materials is now being developed.

Fuel Cell
Not surprisingly, a fuel cell is essentially just the reverse of an electrolytic cell: whereas electricity is used to decompose water into its constituent gases during electrolysis, in a fuel cell water and electricity are generated by the direct recombination of hydrogen and oxygen. A major challenge for hydrogen powered cars today is the cost of the vehicle. The cost for fuel cells alone are currently hovering between $1,000 and $3,000 per kilowatt.

To compete with vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines, those figures need to drop to about $30/kW. There are several kinds of fuel cells, but Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells – also called Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells – are the prime candidates for use in automobiles. Both the electrolytic and the fuel cell use expensive platinum (which currently sells for about $45,000 per kilogram) as electrode material. Researchers are looking at two ways to bring the cost of catalysts down: One way to minimize platinum usage is to increase catalytic efficiency by nanostructuring the platinum metal; another way of eliminating the use of platinum altogether is by exploring the use of much cheaper non-precious metal catalysts where the nanostructured surfaces match or exceed the catalytic properties of platinum.

Nanotechnology certainly will play a major role in a future hydrogen economy. The big question is when most of this hydrogen will be generated from renewable sources and not fossil fuels. Certainly not by 2020.

By Michael Berger,

Laser > Criterion™ RD 1000

The CriterionTM RD 1000 is the first-of-its-kind measurement unit engineered exclusively for the forest industry. This small, lightweight instrument can be used as a stand-alone instrument or attached to an Impulse or TruPulse 200 laser and data recorder as a fully automatic data acquisition system.

Timber cruisers have long desired an instrument which is slope-corrected, easy-to-use under various light conditions and provides a direct read-out of heights and diameters. In addition, it needs to be accurate, lightweight, multifunctional, dependable and inexpensive.

The RD 1000 meets all these requirements. One of the instrument’s unique features is a row of LEDs in the sighting scope which can be viewed as a “solid bar” or as a “gap bar,” as defined by illuminated red segments on each end. The illuminated segments and display readings offer variable brightness levels which give you accurate readings under all lighting conditions. Another feature is the direct read-out of slope, heights and diameters displayed right in the eyepiece, which will update continuously as you adjust the controls.

Diameter accuracy of +/- 0.25 inch can be maintained out to 80 feet away from the tree by utilizing the included, detachable magnifying lens. The RD 1000 can be used as a slope-corrected Basal Area scope for variable plot cruising (BAFs 1-127) and is quickly able to determine if questionable “borderline” trees are in or out of the plot. Used as a dendrometer, the RD 1000 will measure diameters anywhere on the stem and also the height at which a specific diameter occurs. And if that wasn’t enough, we designed it to be affordable too.

  • Dimensions: 2.75" x 2" x 6.5" (7 cm x 5 cm x 16.5 cm)
  • Weight: 1.1 lbs. (500 g)
  • Data communication: Serial, via wired RS232 Input/Output, NMEA 0183
  • Power: 3.0 volts DC nominal; (2) AA batteries or (1) CRV3 battery
  • Battery duration: AA – approx. 20 hours;
  • CRV3 – approx. 40 hours Environmental: Impact, water and dust resistant;
  • NEMA 3, IP 54
  • Temperature: -22°F to +140°F (-30°C to +60ºC)
  • Optics: Normal, 1X;
  • Magnified, 2.5X nominal
  • Displays: External LCD and Internal LED
  • Units: Imperial and Metric
  • Mount: Monopod/tripod (¼” 20 thread)

Measurement Range:
  • Diameter: 2” to 100” (5 cm to 254 cm)*
  • Basal Area Factor: 1 to 127 ft2/acre (0.2 to 29.1 m2/hectare)
  • Inclination: +/- 90 degrees

  • Diameter: +/- ¼” at 80 ft (6 mm at 24 m)*
  • Inclination: +/- 0.1º typical

Measurement Modes / Features:

  • BAF: Visually estimates if trees fall in or out of a given plot as related to the specified Basal Area Factor.
  • In/Out: Internally computes the limiting distance for questionable, borderline trees and determines if they are in or out of the plot.
  • Diameter: Determines the diameter of a tree at any given height.
  • Height/Diameter: Provides the ability to determine the height at which a specific diameter occurs.
  • Raw Inclination: Measures inclination in percent slope.

What The Make The RD 1000 Better- Which scope would you rather look through when you are standing underneath dense canopy and don't have the luxury of good lighting?
  • The RD 1000 can be used as a Basal Area scope for variable plot cruising (with selectable BAF). Now you can quickly determine if questionable “borderline” trees are In or Out of the plot.
  • Used as a dendrometer, the RD 1000 will measure diameters anywhere on the stem and also the height at which a specific diameter occurs.

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Speaker - Super Mini Sound Box Speaker with Li-ion Battery - Silver & Black

This upper mini speaker enhances your music experience anytime and anywhere!Suit for MP3, MP4, MD, CD, Notebook, PC, PDA, PSP, a mobile phone and other digital products with 3.5mm audio frequency outputUsed for charging the equipment with USB power interfaceLithium ion batteries with electric circuit protecting functionChinese vintage drum style design with its compact size

Product Specifications:
Loudspeaker output:2W X 1W X1(d 31mm.28mm)
Loudspeaker impedance:8 ohms
Distortion: 0.5%Rechargeable
Li-ion battery output: 3.6V
Lithium ion battery input: 4.2V+-0.05V
Dimension: 45mm(L)X53mm(W)X34mm(H)Weight: 100g

Package Contents:
English User
Manual USB
CableSound box

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Speaker - Portable Frog Stereo Speaker System

Product Details

Gute green frog portable speakers with lovely design is different from the ordinary computer speakers and PC speakers. This stereo speaker system can sing any beautiful songs for you. Compact Home Speakers with super small size, lightweight, holds it in pocket and carry it conveniently.

100% new and high quality mini cute Stereo Speaker System, assure satisfaction!Novelty design Stereo Speaker with frog model, can sing any beautiful songs for you

The Computer Speakers with high fidelity sound

  • offer dulcet music, clear and superior sound around your earsDigital Computer Speakers
  • adopt digital amplifier extract original natural soundCompact PC Speakers
  • super small size, lightweight, holds it in pocket and carry it convenientlyTravel Portable Speakers
  • perfect for traveling, hiking, mountaineering, camping and outdoor activitiesUniversal Home Speakers
  • compatible with iPod MP3 Mp4 CD or PC, and all audio devices with 3.5mm jackc

The Computer Speakers come with a audio cable to connect your playerPower:

  • 2 x AAA batteries (not included) or DC 4.5V (USB cable included);
  • Size of the PC Speakers: ~10 x 8 x 6cmWeight: 142g

May 15, 2008

Super Cutter - Super Cutter Plus 200 Cutting Nozzle

KEG`s Chain Cutter family offers the field operator a complete range of cutters for remove roots and scaling. Our water driven design is low maintenance and in-the field configuration is a simple matter of a few minutes work. Finally, KEG`s cutters are suitable for a variety of applications, ranging from root removal, scaling, tuberculation, and other types of deposits and blockages.


- Changeable cutters inserts
- Will not damage pipes.
- Easily configured for a variety of jobs
- Stainless steel construction
- 8`` to 48`` pipe diameters- Expandable in increments to 20``, 36``and 48``
- Available with titanium ceramic inserts
- Extended 2 year limited warranty

APPLICATION The Super Cutter Plus 200 Tier Two nozzle is used for root, scaling, rust and chemical deposit removal.

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May 14, 2008

Super Cleaner > 8 Jet Patented Floor Cleaner Nozzle

High efficiency, multi-angle jets at 50 and 200 angles of incidence provide maximum cleaning performance and efficiency. KEG Floor Cleaners are Tier Three nozzles and feature patented fluid mechanics under KEG US Patent #5.992.432.


- Reduced water consumption
- Reduced fuel consumption
- Reduced operating costs
- 80% hydraulic efficiency
- Superior water pattern design


The 8 Jet Patented Tier Three nozzle is used in the removal of heavy or compacted solids, debris, sludge and sand.

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Bridging the Gap Between Wi-Fi, Active RFID and RTLS

The AeroScout suite of products provides Enterprise Visibility Solutions using Wi-Fi wireless networks as an infrastructure. AeroScout solutions use standard wireless networks to accurately locate any asset, and utilize that location to deliver direct benefits such as asset tracking, process automation, theft prevention and increased utilization. AeroScout pioneered the Wi-Fi-based visibility market. The company introduced the industry's first Wi-Fi-based Active RFID tag, and continues to lead the market with the only Wi-Fi visibility system to enable multiple modes of location. Unlike competing technologies, the AeroScout system was designed to work in practically any environment (both indoors and outdoors, with TDOA and RSSI methods), and with the flexibility to meet numerous application needs.

How does the AeroScout System work?

  1. AeroScout's Wi-Fi-based Active RFID tags and/or standard Wi-Fi devices send a tiny wireless signal at a regular interval.
  2. The signal is received by standard wireless access points (or AeroScout Location Receivers), without any infrastructure changes needed, and is sent to a location processing "engine".
  3. The engine uses signal strength and/or time of arrival algorithms to determine location coordinates, and sends this data to AeroScout MobileView.
  4. AeroScout MobileView uses location data to display maps, enable searches, create alerts, manage assets, work with third parties, etc.

Key Benefits

Multiple location modes to suit all needs.
AeroScout is the only Wi-Fi visibility system to offer multiple location types with a single infrastructure: real-time location, presence detection, choke-point visibility and telemetry.

Standard Wi-Fi infrastructure.
The AeroScout system utilizes standard wireless networks for its communications protocol, keeping the infrastructure cost low and enabling enterprises to gain more benefit from their existing WLAN.

Visibility of any valuable asset with AeroScout Wi-Fi-based Active RFID tags.
Locates small, battery-powered AeroScout Tags that can be used to track people and a variety of assets and equipment. The AeroScout system can also locate standard Wi-Fi devices such as laptops, handhelds and scanners without the need for tags.

Enterprise-class application platform for location-based services.
AeroScout MobileView is an industry-leading end-user application for visualization, asset tracking, alerting and reporting, as well as an integration platform for developers to design and deliver location-based services to third-party applications. MobileView turns location information from any source into everyday business value.

Accurate, reliable real-time location and presence detection.
Unlike proprietary Active RFID systems, AeroScout provides true real-time location based on both accurate Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) and Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) methods.

Integrated RFID choke-point and telemetry functionality.
AeroScout Exciter hardware enables RFID-style choke-point tag detection, telemetry message retrieval and other functions.

Indoor and outdoor operation.
The AeroScout system is suitable for use in both indoor and outdoor environments, from corporate offices to harsh industrial areas.

more : aeroscout

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